Grassy Weed Seed Head Identification

ILGM

Buy Cannabis Seeds Online

Annual grassy weeds are some of the more frustrating lawn weeds homeowners will encounter. Differentiating weeds from grass is important to treat the issue. How can you tell the difference? Use these photos and descriptions to identify weeds in your lawn and garden.

Annual Grassy Weeds
Identification and Control
– Crabgrass and Foxtail Weeds –

Let’s look first at crabgrass. Most grassy weeds are undesirable weedy grasses that germinate and grow in lawns, but can lower turf quality and appearance. These weeds do not have the characteristics or growth habits that produce a quality lawn.

Annual grass-type weeds are those that germinate from seed each year and die at the end of the growing season. Annual weeds are prolific seed producers since seed germination is the method of producing the next year’s generation of plants.

Crabgrass (Late Spring Annual Weed)

  • One of the most common and troubling grassy weeds.
  • Yellow-green to a darker blue-green in color.
  • Can be prostrate or upright growing.
  • Multi-branched stems. Large crabgrass roots at the nodes.
  • One plant can produce over 150,000 seeds.
  • It doesn’t make a good lawn because it doesn’t take off until late spring or early summer and dies with the first heavy frost.
  • Plants start off sparse but increase in number and size by end of the year.
  • Can be difficult to stop once they start growing.

Weed Identification

The U.S. and Canada have many grassy weeds with crabgrass being one the most problematic. There are two major species of crabgrass: smooth crabgrass (also called small crabgrass) and large crabgrass (also called hairy or common crabgrass). Smooth crabgrass is found mostly in the northern half of the U.S. and large crabgrass is found throughout the U.S. and southern Canada.

All crabgrass varieties are summer annuals that must come back each year by seed. It is a full sun grassy weed and will only tolerate very light, partial shade. It will not grow in shaded areas.

Crabgrass was originally introduced into this country as a possible forage crop. However, it easily escaped cultivation and is now widespread throughout the country. It is one of the most common and problematic weedy grasses in home lawns. It is also found on golf courses, parks, flower and vegetable gardens, athletic fields and any other place that seeds are able to germinate.

Crabgrass is most at home in areas of thin or poor quality turf. The plants grow quickly and can cover an entire yard by the end of summer.

Crabgrass is yellow-green in color with short, wide leaves. While the seedling look similar to other plants, they soon begin to distinguish themselves. In young plants, like the one in the photo to the left, the leaves are twice as long as they are wide. These young plants begin by growing prostrate with three or four stems branching out in a starfish pattern. As the plant matures the stems will curve in an upward direction. Each plant can produce as many as 700 new tillers (new leaf blades). At full maturity, each leaf will grow to be a few inches long. Crabgrass leaves have tiny hairs on both sides of the leaves.

The roots are shallow and fibrous and do not reach the depth of many other grasses. Large (hairy) crabgrass will root at the nodes and can produce long stolons. Smooth crabgrass does not root at the nodes.

The shallow root system works in their favor by absorbing as much water as possible before it reaches the deeper rooted plants. Frequent, shallow watering will cause crabgrass to flourish at the expense of other grasses. Less frequent, deep watering is better for your turfgrass, but will not neccessarily hinder crabgrass growth.

The photo above is of a mature crabgrass plant, while the photo below is of common bermudagrass.

The leaves of bermudagrass are much finer and are darker in color. Crabgrass seed heads are finger-like spikes that resemble common bermudagrass seed heads. However, crabgrass seed heads are somewhat thicker.

There are usually three to seven spikes that can either be folded up like a funnel or spread out in a whorl pattern. Each plant can produce as much as 150,000 seeds a year. Crabgrass germinates from seed each year when soil temperatures reach 55 degrees for five consecutive days. The blooming of forsythia in your area closely coincides with the germination of crabgrass seeds.

Once the seed has germinated, crabgrass becomes difficult to control. Because of the prostrate growth habit, crabgrass can produce seed heads at mowing heights as low as ½ inch. Mowing your lawn at a height lower than is healthy for your particular grass will only benefit and encourage crabgrass growth.

Cultural Practices that Help Prevent Grassy Weeds

Cultural Practices

Crabgrass, like many there grassy weeds, do not like competition from turfgrass. Crabgrass grows best in poor quality lawns, lawns cut and maintained too short, lawns with disease or insects damage, and in high traffic areas. Lawns with thin or deteriorating grass will give the seed plenty of sun, heat and space for seed germination. A poorly maintained lawn will guarantee that you will have increasing problems with broadleaf and grassy weeds.

If crabgrass is a problem, avoid fertilizing in late spring and summer. Especially avoid applications of high Phosphorus fertilizers. Phosphorus is essential for seedling growth and will only promote crabgrass establishment.

The best method of keeping crabgrass and other grassy weeds out of your lawn is to build a thick, healthy, vigorously growing turf. The first step is to ensure you have the right grass type for your area. Increasing the grass thickness can be accomplished by overseeding, plugging or laying sod, proper fertilization and irrigation. Until the lawn thickens, grassy weeds will continue to be a problem.

It is also important to mow your lawn at the highest recommend level for your specific grass type. This will shade the soil and make germination more difficult. Many cool season turf grasses can be mowed at a height of 3 to 4 inches. Depending on your grass type, see the Cool Season Grasses or the Warm Season Grasses Warm Season Grasses sections of this site for helpful mowing and planting information.

You may find it necessary to use a preemergent herbicide to prevent the seeds grassy weeds and other weeds from germinating.

Herbicide Use

The most effective and proven method of preventing crabgrass from starting is to use a preemergent herbicide. I can’t stress this enough. If you want to prevent crabgrass from ever starting, you have to use a preemergent.

Preemergents are an added ingredient in many spring fertilizer. The bags will be labeled “with Crabgrass Control” or “Crabgrass Preventer”, etc. Make sure you spread the fertilizer at the correct nitrogen (N) level for your grass type. For help developing a sound fertilizer program, read the page on Developing a Fertilizer Program.

A preemergent must be applied before the crabgrass seeds germinate in spring. Again, it MUST be applied before they germinate with only one exception, the use of Dimension preemergent will kill the crabgrass at very early seedling stages. I will describe this in better detail below.

A preemergent (also spelled pre-emergent or pre-emergence) herbicide works by preventing cell division on young plants. A preemergent doesn’t actually prevent the seeds from germinating, as commonly believed. However, once the seeds do germinate, the chemical prevents the cells from dividing and the seed dies. In this way, the seeds are destroyed. An important note: Preemergents will have the same effect on most lawn grass seeds as well. Do not overseed directly before or within a few months after herbicide application or your seed may be ruined.

If you have waited too long and the crabgrass begins growing, preemergents usually have no effect. However, there is one product with the trade name “Dimension” (Chemical name: dithiopyr) that will give some control of seedling plants for a few weeks after emerging from the soil.

The effectiveness of some homeowner type preemergent herbicides is questionable. Some brands don’t perform as well as others. The effectiveness is also related to how it was applied, the amount and frequency of irrigation, amount of rain received, etc.

Keep in mind, if applied too early, the chemical can breakdown too soon allowing mid to late season seeds to germinate. Other chemicals have a short life span and it must be reapplied in mid-summer. Therefore, timing of the application is very important. Outside temperature and soil temperature are important. Remember, crabgrass germinates when soil temperatures reach 55 degrees for five days in the top inch of soil. It is okay to water after the preemergent has been put down, but don’t over water or water too frequently. Frequent, heavy irrigation or heavy rain places maximum stress on these herbicides.

For Established Weeds

Once the weeds are established, they are very difficult to control. Post-emergent herbicides labeled for grassy weeds will need to be used. Most products will require several applications for complete control. Products with MSMA or DSMA will control crabgrass as well as other weedy grasses. The Ortho company makes a product with these active ingredients. Add the correct amount of a “sticker/spreader” to the herbicide mixture for better adherence and absorption into the plant.

There is also the herbicide quinclorac under the trade name “Drive”. This is now available to homeowners and sold by Ortho under the name “Weed-B-Gon MAX Plus Crabgrass Control Ready To Use”. It contains other ingredients to help control broadleaf weeds as well.

Organic Preemergent

The most popular preemergent for crabgrass and other grassy weeds is Corn Gluten Meal. Nick Christians, a turf specialist and university professor in Iowa, holds the patent.

Corn Gluten Meal is sometimes marketed as an organic weed killer for broadleaf and grassy weeds. Although it actually holds little or no weed killing properties it is, however, an effective preemergent. It works by robbing the moisture from developing germinated seeds and seedlings.

One main difference between chemical preemergents and corn gluten meal is the amount applied. Corn gluten meal must be applied between 10 to 30 lbs 1000/sq.ft. Generally, 20 lbs/1000 sq. ft. is the average for most lawns. Use more for severe weed problems. It does not require a license to use.

Timing is important and it must go down near the time that seeds will germinate. After application, irrigate the corn gluten and allow a drying period. This is critical for effectiveness because it must absorb the surface moisture. In wet climates, such as the north western U.S., corn gluten meal may not be as effective. A second application can be made in the fall.

Keep in mind, with corn being used as fuel for vehicles, corn gluten meal is rising in cost. Shop for the best price.

Final Notes

Learn From the Mistakes of Others: Spraying your lawn with a a non-selective herbicide such as Round-up, etc is not an effective crabgrass control. It doesn’t harm the seeds in the soil. Although it will kill all the grass and weeds it touches, the following year you will still have the problem with crabgrass and other broadleaf and grassy weeds that start from seed.

For lawns containing 50% or more weeds with thin or very little grass, a non-selective herbicide can be used if you plan on seeding or sodding soon after. Don’t wait too long to renovate or the weeds will become established and you will have to do it again. Each grass type has a preferred time of year when it should be planted.

Read labels carefully and follow all label instructions. Note that MSMA and DSMA are not recommended for St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass or carpetgrass.

Yellow and Green Foxtails (Summer Annual Weed)

Foxtails are a summer annual grassy weed. They get their name from the seedhead that resembles a fox’s tail. They can spread quickly in sunny areas but less so in shade. The same preemergents that control crabgrass will also control foxtails.

  • Grassy weeds with characteristic cylindrical seed heads.
  • Yellowish-green to blue-green leaves.
  • Seed heads are 2-3 inch.
  • Reproduces from seed only.
  • Difficult to control once seeds have germinated.
  • You will start to see foxtails as soon as the crabgrass weeds are well-established.
  • The same preemergent that stops crabgrass also stops foxtails.

Weed Identification

Foxtails are a species of warm season, annual grassy weeds that starts from seed. It grows in full sun, but can tolerate very light, partial shade. It will not grow in shaded areas.

It develops from a fibrous root system and has a prostrate to upright growth habit. With mature plants, it is common to see the stems branching out at the base, remain prostrate for an inch or two and then curve upward at a 30 to 70 degree angle. Each plant can produce multiple stems that can easily grow twice the height of the leaves.

See also  Cannabis Ruderalis Seeds

The coarse leaves are a yellowish-green to a darker blue-green color. They can grow to 12 inches long and up to ½ inch wide. The leaves are flat and smooth. The widest part of the blade is at the base. The leaves have small silky hairs on the upper surface near the base.

Foxtails are known for their characteristic seed head that has a foxtail-like appearance. The seed head is at the end of the stalk and usually extends several inches above the leaves. Mature plant can have a dozen or more seed heads and can produce thousands of seeds each year. Seeds germinate when temperatures reach 68 degrees and will continue germinating through most of the summer. Foxtails will die at the first killing frost.

Giant foxtail is another foxtail species that grows 2-5 ft tall, but it cannot take repeated mowing. For this reason, giant foxtail is rarely found in mowed turf. Notice that the seed head of giant foxtail droops, while yellow and green foxtail seed heads do not.

Cultural Practices

The primary way of preventing the establishment and spread of foxtail is to maintain a thick, healthy lawn. Maintaining your lawn at the tallest mowing height recommended for your grass type will help slow seed germination.

Consistent, weekly mowing to remove the seed heads before they mature will also go a long way to deter spread. If you have only a few plants growing in your lawn, try removing them by pulling them up. The plant has a fibrous root system, however, some plants will root at the nodes near the base of the plant.

Herbicide Use

If you have had problems before with foxtails, the best way to stop their development is with a preemergent herbicide. These preemergents are added to spring fertilzers.

The same herbicides labeled for crabgrass will work on many other grassy weeds, including foxtails. Preemergents are added to spring fertilizer and will be labeled “with Crabgrass Control” or “Crabgrass Preventer”, etc. Always check the label before using, however. Once the preemergent had been applied, moisture in the soil will activate it. Fertilizers need to be applied correctly in the amounts needed for your grass type and time of year. Scotts fertilizer brand as well as a few others are good homeowner fertilizers. Bargain brands may not give you the control over grassy weeds that you would like. Since fertilizer applicatons are based on the Nitrogen (N) needs of the grass you will need to know how much to apply. Click on the link for helpful information on Developing a Fertilizer Program.

Most preemergents are designed to last a few months before they begin to lose effectiveness. Not all active ingredients work equally well or have the same duration and homeowner varieties tend to last the least amount of time. This means that your timing will be very important. Important Note: Foxtails will germinate a few weeks to a month later than crabgrass. Something to remember when applying a preemgerent.

Once the seed germinates, the herbicide chemical stops cell division within the seed, so the plant never develops. As a result, the seed dies.

The preemergent herbicide label may list other broadleaf and grassy weeds that it controls. However, most are not very effective with broadleaf weed seeds.

For Established Weeds

Post-emergence herbicides will be needed once the foxtails have become established. The herbicides containing the active ingredients MSMA or MSDA are labeled for many grassy weeds, including foxtails. Read the label carefully and follow all label instructions. MSMA and DSMA are not recommended for use on St. Augustinegrass, centipedegrass or carpetgrass.

There is also the herbicide quinclorac under the trade name “Drive”. This is now available to homeowners and sold by Ortho under the name “Weed-B-Gon MAX Plus Crabgrass/Grassy Weeds Control. It is a “Ready To Use” formulation, meaning it comes already pre-mixed. It contains other ingredients including 2,4-D and Dicamba to help control broadleaf weeds as well.

Nimblewill Grassy Weed
Nimblewill is a grassy weed that resembles bermudagrass. It is most prominent when growing in cool season grasses. Find information on identification, growth habits, and control methods.

Winter Annual Broadleaf Weeds
With each spring comes a surge of winter annual broadleaf weeds. Here you will find valuable information about these difficult weeds including growth habits, photos, and measures that can be taken to control them.

Summer Annual Broadleaf Weeds
Many of the most problematic broadleaf weeds are annuals. Here you will find specific summer annual weed information, with weed names, photos and control methods.

Perennial Broadleaf Weed Identification Page 1
Click here for weed identification and control of common broadleaf perennial lawn weeds. This page has detailed information on Canada Thistle, Mouseear Chickweed, White clover, Dandelion, Field Bindweed, Ground Ivy, and Common Mallow.

Perennial Broadleaf Weed Identification Page 2
This page contains more perennial broadleaf weed identification and control methods. You can find detailed information on Buckhorn Plantain, Broadleaf Plantain, Red Sorrel, Wild Violets, and Common Yarrow.

Yellow and Purple Nutsedge
Nutsedge is a summer perennial grass-like weed. They can be particular problematic since they cannot be controlled by broadleaf weed herbicides. Click here for weed identification, growth habits and control methods.

10 Weeds That Look Like Grass

Mother Nature can be a clever mistress, indeed. She can be so clever that she can disguise a variety of different common weeds that look like desirable grasses.

An invasion of such a grassy weed is insidious. It doesn’t appear to be a serious problem for your lawn until it’s already become a serious problem.

These weeds hide in plain sight and can be easily overlooked if you don’t know what you’re looking for.

That’s what this article is all about. We are going to provide you with a list of weeds that look like grass. You’ll discover how to identify each grassy weed and learn some different control methods for each one.

So, before these common weeds that look like common lawn grasses become an issue, let’s dive in and take a look.

1. Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua)

What it Looks Like

Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is one of the most commonly misidentified weed grasses. It is a close relative of the desirable cold-season Kentucky bluegrass.

As with all members of the Poa genus, annual bluegrass has canoe-shaped tips on its grass blades. Because they mimic the shape of other Poa species, the best way to identify these grassy weeds is to look for their brighter and lighter green color.

Annual bluegrass also has a long ligule, or membrane, that connects that leaf blade to the base of the stem.

Annual bluegrass is also a cold-season weed grass. They tend to congregate in shady areas with excess moisture. The heat and light from the sun will dry these grassy weeds out and leave bare patches in your yard.

Control Methods

Annual bluegrass can be treated with both pre-emergent and post-emergent herbicides. However, the best way to ensure that you don’t have it hiding on your lawn is to create a habitat not suitable for its growth.

If you have areas of your yard that are shaded, open them up by trimming back the trees or shrubs that provide the shade. For moist areas, ensure that the soil isn’t compacted and is properly draining. These two prevention methods should do your grass justice and keep annual bluegrass at bay.

2. Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis and Digitaria ischaemum)

What it Looks Like

If you’ve not heard of crabgrass, then you’re not spending enough time outside. Because these grassy weeds are everywhere. Digitaria sanguinalis (also called large crabgrass) is predominantly found in the northern part of the country, and Digitaria ischaemum (also called smooth crabgrass) is the crabgrass species that dominates the southern part.

But crabgrass is crabgrass. And none of it’s good. This grassy weed makes its home on unhealthy yards. So if your lawn is under-watered, under-fed, and poorly drained, then you’re probably going to have a problem with crabgrass.

Crabgrass plants are annual weeds that will die off each year. That may sound like good news until you hear that each crabgrass plant is capable of producing more than 150,000 seeds that can germinate every spring.

Crabgrass grows in clumps on your lawn. While it does look similar to normal grasses, it has a much thicker growth habit and is altogether an unattractive eyesore on your lawn. If the seeds do germinate and grow unchecked, the blades can grow as long as 2 feet. Crabgrass is generally a lighter green than most desirable lawn grasses. Once its root system is established, it spreads quickly and aggressively across your lawn.

Control Methods

Just like annual bluegrass, you can get rid of crabgrass with one of many selective pre-emergent herbicides to prevent the seemingly countless seeds from germinating. If you’re too late for that, a selective post-emergent herbicide will also clear up the problem. However, your best bet if the seeds have already germinated is to recognize and pull the crabgrass plants before they’re old enough to go to seed.

The best defense, however, is a good offense. And a good offense, in this case, is ensuring that your lawn is healthy and thick. Take care to ensure proper fertlization, watering, and drainage on your property. This will keep your desirable grass too thick and healthy for crabgrass to invade.

3. Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus)

What it Looks Like

Yellow nutsedge is a perennial weed that can attack your lawn from above the soil and below. Seeds can be spread through the air from above the soil level and through its rhizomes, or tubers, below the soil’s surface.

The fact that it’s a perennial weed that will reappear each growing season only complicates matters further.

When yellow nutsedge is young, it will have light green colored grass blades. As it ages, the grass blades will become a deeper green. This change in color can make it hard to identify amongst your desirable lawn grass.

Yellow nutsedge is best identified by looking at its root system. On its roots, there will be nut-like tubers growing from them. These tubers give the grassy weed its name.

Control Methods

The best plan of action for controlling yellow nutsedge is to keep your lawn lush and healthy. A healthy lawn will do its own work and prevent nutsedge from having a place to invade. So be sure to do the upkeep using proper maintenance practices, and you should be fine.

Since yellow nutsedge is a perennial grassy weed, once it shows up on your lawn, the best way of getting rid of it is a heavy dose of post-emergent herbicide.

Pulling the weeds may cause you more problems because leaving the smallest piece of these plants in the soil guarantees that they will regenerate and make a repeat appearance on your lawn. If you decide to go this route, ensure that you remove every single fiber of the yellow nutsedge from the ground.

4. Green Foxtail (Setaria viridis)

What it Looks Like

Green foxtail earns its name because, once it is fully grown, a piece of the plant resembles the tail of a fox. This piece that resembles a fox tail is a seedhead that can produce hundreds of problematic seeds that can spread through your lawn and garden.

Green foxtail is an annual grassy weed that will require the germination and growth of brand new plants every year.

Identification can be tough before the plant grows its seedhead. Its blades are a normal green color and don’t have a remarkably different shape than most desirable lawn grasses. Its growth habit is normal as well. So this one can be tough to spot.

Control Methods

Since it’s an annual weed, you can control green foxtail by pulling it out. Preferably, you’ll have it removed before it goes to seed. But, as you already know, this can be a difficult task because it looks so similar to your grass before that point.

If you find that green foxtail has already gone to seed, you can pull the plant from the soil and use a pre-emergent herbicide to keep the green foxtail’s seeds from germinating in the spring.

If the invasion is too great to pull all of the grassy weed out, you can use a selective post-emergent herbicide to kill it off. You’ll still need to treat the ground with a pre-emergent herbicide at some point before the seeds begin to germinate when the weather warms up.

See also  Cannabis Seeds Oregon

5. Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera)

What it Looks Like

Creeping bentgrass is often planted intentionally. But this intentional planting is usually relegated to the fairways and putting greens on manicured golf courses and not on your yard.

Creeping bentgrass can spread aggressively in your grass and garden through its stolons.

Creeping bentgrass will appear in light green patches in your grass. Its blades are generally finer and thinner than most desirable grasses. If you allow creeping bentgrass to grow taller than 1 inch, it will take on a puffed-up or swollen appearance.

Cool-season creeping bentgrass is averse to excessive heat and will turn brown quickly at even slight elevations in temperature.

Control Methods

Because creeping bentgrass propagates and spreads through its stolons beneath the soil’s surface, one plan of attack is to use selective herbicides on this hardy perennial plant. An herbicide containing glyphosate is your best bet. However, this may only work if you catch these lawn weeds very early in their life cycle.

Creeping bentgrass is often more widespread than it may seem. This is due to it spreading underground through its stolons. On average, if you have a patch of creeping bentgrass with a diameter of 1 foot, you actually have a mix of the grassy weed and your desirable grass that extends three times that diameter. This makes spot-treating creeping bentgrass very difficult.

Unfortunately, the nature of these weeds makes them very difficult to completely eradicate once they are established. So, you’re either going to have to start over by removing all the grass entirely and reseeding or start promoting the growth of creeping bentgrass on your property.

To promote creeping bentgrass, you’ll need to shift your focus from soil fertility and nutrition to pest control. Because pests are one of this weed’s primary afflictions.

6. Common Couch (Elymus repens)

What it Looks Like

Common couch is a hardy perennial grassy weed that also goes by couchgrass and quackgrass. These weeds are equally at home in shade and sun.

Common couch spreads through both its underground rhizomes and its airborne seeds. Once it is established, its root system becomes exceedingly difficult to remove completely. So, it’s best if you can catch it early.

Common couch has a coarse texture and will appear on your lawn in patches. It’s blue-green color can be hard to distinguish amongst some desirable grasses.

The blades of these grassy weeds look similar to fingers. Their growth habit wraps these finger-like blades around the stem at the base of the plant.

Control Methods

If it is allowed to grow unchecked, common couch will take over your lawn in no time. It makes its home on areas that are thinned or bare. So, an unhealthy lawn makes the perfect victim for these weeds.

Whenever you come across common couch in your lawn or garden, you can pull it up by hand. But, if you do, you need to ensure that every piece of the plant is removed from the soil. Otherwise, you’re destined for another visit as soon as it can regenerate.

Chemical control will require both pre-emergent and post-emergent herbicides because it spreads underground through its rhizomes. So you have to ensure that the hardy root system is dead to prevent its propagation.

The best defense against common couch (and this feels like it’s becoming a theme) is a healthy, vibrant, and thick lawn. It will outgrow the weeds, and they won’t have any space to invade.

7. Smooth Bromegrass (Bromus inermis)

What it Looks Like

Just like couchgrass, smooth bromegrass is a perennial weed that can spread through either rhizomes or seeds. It also has a robust root system that will be difficult to get rid of once it becomes established in your lawn.

Smooth bromegrass can grow to heights of over 7 feet. Its blades, or leaves, grow to between 8 inches and 2 feet long. The blades hang down in a drooping manner. The blades are covered on both the upper and lower surfaces by fine hairs.

This weed’s color ranges from a light to a normal shade of green. The upper portions of the blades can be lighter in color because of their length if growing conditions are poor.

Control Methods

Fortunately, you can control smooth bromegrass by keeping it cut short with your mower or weedeater. Keeping it short will allow your desirable grass to crowd it out eventually, and you won’t have to resort to any chemical herbicides.

However, if the weeds have spread out and established themselves, you’ll need to use some strong pre-emergent and post-emergent herbicides to quell the invasion. Use an herbicide with glyphosate for the best results.

8. Carpetgrass (Axonopus compresus and Axonopus affinis)

What it Looks Like

These weeds share the same genus and have similar physical traits, so they’re lumped together under one name. Carpetgrass is a perennial weed that can grow to heights of a foot or more. It will appear on your lawn in very thick mats that are shaded a normal green color.

In the summer, they will produce seed heads that look very similar to those of crabgrass. The seed heads will be taller than the rest of the plant.

Carpetgrass prefers acidic soil with high moisture content. You will probably find them congregating and growing in shady areas that do not receive adequate sunlight. This allows the moisture levels to build up in the soil.

Control Methods

One good thing about carpetgrass is that you can control it through natural methods. All you have to do is raise the pH level of the soil. You can do this by adding lime or salt mixed with a gallon of water. One of these two should do the trick.

Of course, if you catch it early enough, you can pull it from the earth. However, since it is a perennial weed, you’ll need to ensure that you remove every last piece of it from the ground.

9. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea)

What it Looks Like

This may be confusing because tall fescue is used as a desirable grass on some lawns. However, much like creeping bentgrass, it can show up without an invitation and take over your lawn. Ironically, the very things that make this such a desirable grass are also the things that make it a worthy opponent in your yard.

Tall fescue has distinct blades or leaves. The leaves of tall fescue are thick and broad. They have pronounced veins running the length of the blades, and this gives them a coarse texture. The blades are colored bright green, and the lower surface is a lighter green than the upper surface.

Control Methods

When it comes to tall fescue, I have some good news and some bad news. The bad news is that it is an extremely hardy plant that is very drought resistant. Once it shows up in your grass, it can be challenging to remove it completely.

It spreads through underground rhizomes, so its initial damage assessment may be underestimated. It can be spread further than it appears at first.

The good news is that you can beat tall fescue with natural means. Solarization is the best technique to use. Cover the weeds up with black plastic, newspaper, a tarp, or cardboard and let the heat, combined with a lack of sunlight and oxygen, suffocate the invasion out of your yard.

10. Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense)

What it Looks Like

Johnsongrass is a perennial weed that is relatively easy to identify and control, which is a different story than the rest of the perennial weeds in this article.

When johnsongrass is in its early stages of life, it resembles the seedlings of the corn plant we all know and love. Left to grow unchecked, it can reach heights of over 7 feet.

Its seed head will start out green and then transition to a purplish maroon color.

As johnsongrass matures on your lawn, you’ll be able to pick it out because its leaves will become up to an inch thick and have a distinct white vein running down the middle of each blade.

Control Methods

There’s an easy way to control it and a hard, labor-intensive way to control it. The easy way is to cover the entire plant with highly concentrated vinegar. Be careful not to spray anything you don’t want to kill because vinegar is non-selective.

The hard, labor-intensive control method is used for larger johnsongrass invasions. It spreads through its rhizomes under the soil along with its seeds. So, to kill the johnsongrass, you’ll need to expose those rhizomes to the elements by using a tiller to cultivate the earth containing them. Do this later in the fall and expose the rhizomes to the cold winter temperatures, and they won’t be making a second appearance in the spring.

Jeffrey Douglas own a landscaping company and has been in the business for over 20 years. He loves all things related to lawns or gardens and believes that proper maintenance is the key to preventing problems in the first place.

33 Lawn and Garden Weeds: How to Identify and Control Them

Andrea Beck spent more than three years writing about food for Better Homes & Gardens before serving as the assistant digital garden editor. Now, she writes about lifestyle topics, including food, garden, home, and health for Hy-Vee’s Seasons magazine. Her work has appeared on Food & Wine, Martha Stewart, MyRecipes, and more. Andrea holds a double degree in magazines and English, with a minor in politics from Drake University.

Don’t let these pesky plants crash your garden party! The first step is to know your enemy. Then you’ll know the best way to deal with your weed problem.

What Is a Weed, Anyway?

A weed can be any plant growing where you don’t want it to. However, there are some particularly weedy species to keep an eye out for. These aggressive plants not only make your yard look messy, they can also choke out the garden plants you’ve worked so hard to grow. Whether you’re trying to identify lawn weeds or garden weeds, this handy guide will help you identify more than 30 common weeds by photo, plus give you tips for how to best remove them.

Dandelion

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: 12 inches tall, 6-16 inches wide

Where It Grows: Lawns and gardens in sun or shade

Appearance: This common lawn weed has a long taproot with deeply notched leaves. Yellow flowers mature into puffballs. Dandelion seeds are like parachutes that fly away in the wind, helping them invade new spaces in lawns and garden beds.

Weed Control Tips: Mulch to prevent dandelions in gardens. Pull dandelion weeds by hand or treat lawns with a broadleaf herbicide, which won’t kill grass.

Oxalis

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 20 inches tall

Where It Grows: Sunny or shady landscape, lawn or garden areas

Appearance: This garden weed has light green leaves that look somewhat like clovers and cup-shape yellow flowers in summer and fall.

Weed Control Tips: Mulch garden areas in spring to prevent weeds. Pull oxalis weeds by hand or spray weeds with a broadleaf herbicide in spring or fall.

Crabgrass

Type: Grassy annual

Size: Up to 18 inches tall and 20 inches wide

Where It Grows: Lawn, landscape, and garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: Crabgrass is exactly what it sounds like: A grassy weed. This lawn weed grows roots anywhere the stem makes soil contact. Seed heads spread out like four fingers.

Control: Use a pre-emergence weed preventer to prevent seeds from sprouting, pull crabgrass by hand, or spot-treat with a nonselective herbicide if growing in sidewalk cracks or other places where nothing else is growing.

Bindweed

Bindweed is known for choking out native species, and it can be extremely difficult to eliminate from your yard. Marty Baldwin

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Climbs to 6 feet or more

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in sun

Appearance: Identify this garden weed by its arrowhead-shape leaves on twining vines. Bindweed also produces white to pale pink morning glory-type flowers.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent bindweed. Repeatedly pull or cut down growing bindweed plants and/or spot treat with a nonselective herbicide designed to kill roots, not just above-ground growth.

White Clover

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: 8-10 inches tall, 12 inches wide

Where It Grows: Lawn, landscape, and garden areas in sun to partial shade

Appearance: White clover has three-lobe leaves and round white flower clusters. The plants quickly spread outward to form dense mats of foliage.

See also  Dill Weed Seeds

Control: Mulch your garden beds to prevent white clover in landscape areas. Use an iron-based herbicide to get rid of clover growing in lawns or dig out the weeds in garden beds.

Test Garden Tip: Clover adds nitrogen to the soil plus the flowers feed many pollinators so some gardeners use this plant to create a more environmentally friendly lawn.

Nutsedge

Type: Grass-like perennial

Size: 2 feet tall, 1 foot wide

Where It Grows: Lawn, landscape, or garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: Nutsedge has slender, grassy leaves, triangular stems, and small, nutlike tubers on the root system. When these weeds pop up in lawns, they often grow faster than turf grass, so they are easy to spot.

Control: Mulch garden areas in spring to help prevent nutsedge. Plants are easy to pull up by hand, but it will take repeated weeding to get rid of an infestation. Various herbicides are labeled for use on nutsedge in lawns but it is important to use the right one for the type of turf grass you have to avoid damaging it.

Creeping Charlie

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: 4 inches tall, several feet wide

Where It Grows: Shady lawn, landscape, or garden areas

Appearance: Identify this lawn weed and groundcover by its scalloped leaves, creeping stems, and clusters of purple flowers in late spring.

Control: Mulch garden areas in spring to prevent creeping charlie. Pull plants by hand or spray with a postemergence herbicide in spring or fall.

Lamb’s-Quarter

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 4 feet tall and 18 inches wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: Lamb’s-quarters has scalloped, triangular leaves with gray undersides.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent lamb’s-quarter. Pull weed plants by hand or use a postemergence herbicide.

Plantain

Plantain weeds like hard, densely packed soil; loosen it with a hoe before trying to pull them out. Denny Schrock

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 8 inches tall and 12 inches wide

Where It Grows: Moist lawn and garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: When you’re identifying weeds in your garden, if you spot broad, flat, oval-shape leaves arranged in a low rosette, you’ve likely found a Plantain.

Control: Mulch to prevent plantains growing in the garden. Pull these weeds by hand or use a postemergence herbicide in lawns.

Dayflower

Type: Annual grass relative

Size: Up to 30 inches tall and wide

Where It Grows: Sunny or shady landscape areas

Appearance: Dayflowers have dark green leaves sprouting from a stem and brilliant blue flowers through the summer.

Control: Mulch the garden to prevent weeds or use a preemergence herbicide in spring. Pull weeds by hand or spot-treat with a nonselective postemergence herbicide.

Purslane

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 6 inches tall and 2 feet wide

Where it grows: Dry, sunny landscape and garden areas

Appearance: Identify this weed groundcover by its fleshy, dark green leaves and small yellow flowers at the ends of the stems.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent purslane or use a preemergence herbicide in the spring. Pull plants by hand or spot-treat with a nonselective postemergence herbicide.

Velvetleaf

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 6 feet tall and 3 feet wide

Where It Grows: Fertile, sunny landscape and garden areas

Appearance: Velvetleaf gets its name because of its large, velvety heart-shape leaves up to 10 inches across. The weed blooms with yellow flowers in summer.

Weed Control: Mulch your garden to prevent velvetleaf or use a preemergence herbicide in spring. Pull existing plants by hand or use a postemergence herbicide.

Wild Violet

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: 6 inches tall, 6 inches wide

Where It Grows: Shady lawn, landscape, or garden areas

Appearance: Wild violet is a groundcover with heart-shape leaves and purple flowers in late spring.

Control: Mulch garden beds in spring to prevent wild violet. Pull weeds by hand or spray with a postemergence herbicide in spring or fall.

Test Garden Tip: This plant is sometimes grown as an ornamental in shade gardens.

Smartweed

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 42 inches tall and 30 inches wide

Where It Grows: Sunny landscape and garden areas

Appearance: Identify garden weeds like smartweed by its lance-shape leaves often marked with purple chevrons. It’s an upright plant with pink or white flowers in summer and fall.

Control: To prevent this weed, mulch garden beds in spring. Pull plants by hand or apply a postemergence herbicide once it grows.

Test Garden Tip: This weed is native to areas of North America. Unlike many exotic weeds, it supports local wildlife.

Quickweed

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 2 feet tall and wide

Where It Grows: Sunny landscape and garden areas

Appearance: Quickweed has jagged, hairy leaves and small white daisy-shape flowers in summer.

Control: Use a mulch or a preemergence herbicide in spring to prevent quickweed. If plants do grow, pull them by hand or spot-treat them with a postemergence herbicide.

Pigweed

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: 6 feet tall, 2 feet wide

Where it grows: Sunny landscape or garden areas

Appearance: Pigweeds are tall plants with a taproot. Identify weeds by their hairy-looking clusters of green flowers (though some varieties are grown as annuals).

Control: Mulch garden areas in spring to prevent pigweed or use a preemergence herbicide in spring. Pull weeds by hand or spray with a postemergence weed killer.

Canada Thistle

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 6 feet tall and 3 feet wide

Where It Grows: Sunny lawn, landscape, or garden areas

Appearance: Canada thistle has spiny, gray-green leaves, and purple flowers.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent it in landscape areas. Use a postemergence herbicide in lawns in spring or fall, or dig the weed out by hand.

Test Garden Tip: Thistle has an extensive root system that can grow several feet out from the main plant.

Knotweed

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 8 inches tall and 2 feet wide

Where It Grows: Sunny or partly shaded lawn, landscape, or garden areas

Appearance: Knotweed is an invasive groundcover with blue-green leaves sparsely appearing on long stems.

Control: Prevent knotweed with a deep layer of mulch or apply a preemergence herbicide in spring. Once the plant grows, hand-pull or spot-treat it with a nonselective weed killer.

Pokeweed

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 10 feet tall and 2 feet wide

Where It Grows: Sunny landscape or garden areas

Appearance: Identify this garden weed by its light green leaves, clusters of white flowers, and dark purple berries.

Control: Prevent pokeweed with a deep layer of mulch. Once the plant grows, hand-pull or spot-treat it with an herbicide.

Poison Ivy

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 15 feet tall and wide

Where It Grows: Sunny or shady landscape or garden areas

Appearance: Poison ivy can be a vine, shrub, or groundcover. The weed has leaves divided into three leaflets and can sprout clusters of green berries.

Control: Prevent poison ivy with a deep layer of mulch. If the weed starts to grow in your yard, spot-treat it with an herbicide or wrap your hand in a plastic bag, pull the plant up, roots and all, and carefully invert the plastic bag around the plant, seal, and throw away.

Test Garden Tip: The plant contains oils that cause a severe allergic skin reaction in many people when touched. These oils are present even on dead leaves and can become airborne and inhaled if the plant is burned.

Black Nightshade

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: 2 feet tall, 2 feet wide

Where It Grows: Landscape or garden areas with rich soil in sun or shade

Appearance: Black nightshade can be a bushy or climbing plant with white or purple flowers and purple or red fruits.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent black nightshade. Pull the weed by hand or treat with a postemergence herbicide.

Test Garden Tip: All parts of this plant are poisonous (including the fruits) if swallowed.

Black Medic

Type: Broadleaf annual or short-lived perennial

Size: 1-2 feet tall, 1 foot wide

Where It Grows: Poor, dry, soil in full sun

Appearance: Identify this garden weed by its clover-type leaves and small, yellow flowers. It grows as a dense mat, thanks to its creeping stems.

Control: Mulch to prevent black medic in gardens. Pull or dig out weeds by hand or use a postemergence herbicide. Discourage it by keeping the soil well watered and amended with organic matter (such as compost).

Quackgrass

Type: Grassy perennial

Size: Up to 3 feet tall and several feet wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: This garden weed has wheatlike flower spikes, which appear above slender clumps of grassy foliage.

Control: Mulch your garden well to prevent quackgrass. Dig plants out by hand, being sure to remove every bit of root. Spot treat with a nonselective weed killer.

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 4 feet tall and 2 feet wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: Dock produces large, wavy-edge leaves and large seed heads covered with brown seeds.

Control: Mulch to prevent dock. Pull and dig up plants or treat with a postemergence herbicide.

Henbit

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 12 inches tall and wide

Where It Grows: Lawn, landscape, and garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: This lawn weed is a low, creeping plant with scallop-edge leaves and purple flowers.

Control: Mulch to prevent henbit in gardens or use preemergence herbicide in spring. Pull plants by hand or treat in lawns with a broadleaf, postemergence herbicide.

Fleabane

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: 2 feet tall and 18 inches wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in sun to partial shade

Appearance: Fleabane has slender leaves attached to an upright, branching stem. It produces puffy white to pale lavender daisies.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent fleabane or use a preemergence herbicide in spring. Pull plants by hand or spot-treat with a postemergence herbicide.

Nettle

Stinging nettle can resprout from rhizomes but also hurt your hands, so wear garden gloves when dealing with this weed. Denny Schrock

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 6 feet tall and 3 feet wide

Where It Grows: Garden areas with rich, moist soil

Appearance: This garden weed has sawtooth-edge leaves and yellowish flower clusters covered with stinging hairs.

Control: Mulch to prevent nettle. Dig out weeds or treat with a postemergence herbicide.

Test Garden Tip: Always wear gloves when working around this plant (the sharp hairs can irritate skin).

Prostrate Spurge

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: 3 inches tall, 18 inches wide

Where It Grows: Lawn, landscape, and garden areas with dry soil

Appearance: Green or purple-blushed leaves of prostrate spurge form dense mats.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent prostrate spurge or use a preemergence herbicide in lawns. Pull weeds when young or spot-treat with a postemergence herbicide.

Chickweed

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: 6 inches tall, 12 inches wide

Where It Grows: Lawn, garden, and landscape areas with rich, moist soil in sun or shade

Appearance: This garden and lawn weed creates lush green mats studded with small, star-shape flowers.

Control: Mulch to prevent chickweed in gardens or use a preemergence herbicide in early spring. Pull weeds by hand.

Musk Thistle

Type: Broadleaf biennial

Size: Up to 6 feet tall and 18 inches wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in full sun

Appearance: Musk thistle has prickly leaves growing off of tall stems topped by heavy two inch purple flowers.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent musk thistle. Use a postemergence herbicide or dig the weed out by hand.

Ragweed

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 4 feet tall and 2 feet wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in sun or partial shade

Appearance: Ragweed has finely cut green leaves that are almost fern-like.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent ragweed. Use a postemergence herbicide or pull it out by hand.

Yellow Sweet Clover

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: 1-3 feet tall, 12-18 inches wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas

Appearance: Identify this garden weed by its lanky branches, clover-like leaves, and fragrant yellow flowers.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent yellow sweet clover. Pull plants by hand or spot-treat with a postemergence herbicide.

Yellow Salsify

Type: Broadleaf biennial or short-lived perennial

Size: Up to 3 feet tall and 2 feet wide

Where It Grows: Sunny landscape and garden areas

Appearance: Spot yellow salsify by its gray-green leaves. Yellow flowers on the plant are followed by large puffballs of seeds.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent yellow salsify. Pull plants by hand or treat with a postemergence herbicide.

How useful was this post?

Click on a star to rate it!

Average rating 3 / 5. Vote count: 1

No votes so far! Be the first to rate this post.